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What Motown and Techno Have in Common

The global electronic music industry is worth $7.1 billion. From house clubs to international music festivals, the industry has amassed millions of fans and cemented itself as an industry soundhouse. Few know the roots of this genre in Black America.

One of the largest subsets of the genre, techno, can trace its origins to a geographic location: Detroit, Michigan (well, the suburbs).

To some accounts, three middle-class African-American DJ-producers are the brains behind techno: Derrick May, Juan Atkins, and Kevin Saunderson. However, other accounts delineate Juan Atkins as the sole originator.

Either way, they eventually would come together to enhance European “synth-pop” tracks with African-American sounds such as Chicago house, funk, electro, and electronic jazz creating a new, completely electronic and fast-paced sound.

Techno encapsulated afrofuturism through sounds that were primarily all-instrumental and with beats more complex than the syncopation of house music.

“We were just kids having fun. The technology allowed us to make this music. It just happened.” – Juan Atkins

The name “techno” was first used by Juan Atkins, who named his 1983 song “Techno City.” Atkins’ songs gained traction on local radio waves and eventually landed him a deal with Virgin Records.

Since the label was based in the U.K., Detroit’s new sound gained immense traction overseas and forever solidified the originators’ place in history.




The dark side of this international attention was an emergence of what NPR calls “blackface DJs”. These DJs were white people who created fictional backstories and presented themselves as Black people to give their music more “authenticity”.

Blackface DJs would create names that “sounded Black”, like DJ Marques, and claim to come from places with high Black populations such as Gary, IN, Harlem, NY, or the Cabrini Green housing projects in Chicago.

Techno’s influence helped spur the development of later musical sounds. As techno and house music seemed to bounce ideas off of each other, artists like DJ Deeon and DJ Slugo developed a distinct sound through “ghetto house.”

Techno music continues to be both produced and enjoyed by diverse audiences across the globe. Some current top songs include “Remember Pig & Dan Remix” by Matador “System Hack Original Mix” by Carlo Ruetz, and “Zoo Project Pax Remix” by Dennis Cruz.

Though now a global music industry, techno will never completely detach from its rooted Black hands in Detroit, Michigan.

What Motown and Techno Have in Common

The global electronic music industry is worth $7.1 billion. From house clubs to international music festivals, the industry has amassed millions of fans and cemented itself as an industry soundhouse. Few know the roots of this genre in Black America.

One of the largest subsets of the genre, techno, can trace its origins to a geographic location: Detroit, Michigan (well, the suburbs).

To some accounts, three middle-class African-American DJ-producers are the brains behind techno: Derrick May, Juan Atkins, and Kevin Saunderson. However, other accounts delineate Juan Atkins as the sole originator.

Either way, they eventually would come together to enhance European “synth-pop” tracks with African-American sounds such as Chicago house, funk, electro, and electronic jazz creating a new, completely electronic and fast-paced sound.

Techno encapsulated afrofuturism through sounds that were primarily all-instrumental and with beats more complex than the syncopation of house music.

“We were just kids having fun. The technology allowed us to make this music. It just happened.” – Juan Atkins

The name “techno” was first used by Juan Atkins, who named his 1983 song “Techno City.” Atkins’ songs gained traction on local radio waves and eventually landed him a deal with Virgin Records.

Since the label was based in the U.K., Detroit’s new sound gained immense traction overseas and forever solidified the originators’ place in history.




The dark side of this international attention was an emergence of what NPR calls “blackface DJs”. These DJs were white people who created fictional backstories and presented themselves as Black people to give their music more “authenticity”.

Blackface DJs would create names that “sounded Black”, like DJ Marques, and claim to come from places with high Black populations such as Gary, IN, Harlem, NY, or the Cabrini Green housing projects in Chicago.

Techno’s influence helped spur the development of later musical sounds. As techno and house music seemed to bounce ideas off of each other, artists like DJ Deeon and DJ Slugo developed a distinct sound through “ghetto house.”

Techno music continues to be both produced and enjoyed by diverse audiences across the globe. Some current top songs include “Remember Pig & Dan Remix” by Matador “System Hack Original Mix” by Carlo Ruetz, and “Zoo Project Pax Remix” by Dennis Cruz.

Though now a global music industry, techno will never completely detach from its rooted Black hands in Detroit, Michigan.

The Awe-Inspiring Tale of The Real McCoy

“The Real McCoy” is a phrase you have probably heard at some point in your life, but do you know the man behind the legend? Meet renowned inventor Elijah McCoy.

Elijah was born in 1844, the son of formerly enslaved Blacks who escaped from Kentucky to Canada by way of the Underground Railroad. Educated in segregated Canadian schools, Elijah quickly realized he had a knack for science and math.

At an early age, he enjoyed tinkering with machines as well as taking things apart and rebuilding them. Though he was one of 12 kids, Elijah’s parents recognized his promise and supported him in traveling to Scotland to study mechanical engineering at age 15.

After the Civil War, Elijah was determined to move to the United States with his family to pursue a career in mechanical engineering. To his dismay, all the available engineering jobs were reserved for white men despite being equally qualified.

Out of necessity, Elijah took a position as a fireman (one who adds coal to a train engine) and as an oiler (one who greased a train’s engine and gears) for Michigan Central Railroad. Although these were menial jobs relative to his qualifications, they would later become the inspiration for Elijah’s revolutionary inventions.

Dissatisfied with the fact that locomotives required frequent stops to oil its parts, Elijah drew on his engineering background to think through ways to improve this process. To address this issue, he invented and patented a lubricating cup that continuously distributed oil evenly over the engine’s moving parts.




His invention reinvented locomotive travel by allowing trains to run for long periods of time without needing to stop for maintenance. Elijah’s invention gave birth to the name “The Real McCoy” to distinguish from all the imitation lubricating cups that popped up following his success.

The moniker came to mean “the real deal” and denoted authenticity and originality to all those who were looking to purchase one of these products. While his invention continues to be used in trains to this day, it is his name that has become a cultural mainstay.

From childhood tinkering to 57 patents, Elijah McCoy became the most prolific Black inventor of his time even gaining the respect of notable public figures like Booker T. Washington for his remarkable output.

Elijah’s journey reveals the age-old adage that it’s not always about where you start, but where you end up that matters in life. Though he did not get the engineering job he initially wanted, he transformed the opportunities he was given into a career he never imagined possible.

Many people are in jobs that they do not want to be in and are not sure if they are truly walking in their purpose. Elijah McCoy is an example of how we can make the best of our situations by learning a business, finding a niche and way to improve it, and then creating a solution by starting our own enterprise.

Elijah never let his current situation dictate the ways in which he utilized his talents and brought value to an industry he was undoubtedly passionate about.



The Awe-Inspiring Tale of The Real McCoy

“The Real McCoy” is a phrase you have probably heard at some point in your life, but do you know the man behind the legend? Meet renowned inventor Elijah McCoy.

Elijah was born in 1844, the son of formerly enslaved Blacks who escaped from Kentucky to Canada by way of the Underground Railroad. Educated in segregated Canadian schools, Elijah quickly realized he had a knack for science and math.

At an early age, he enjoyed tinkering with machines as well as taking things apart and rebuilding them. Though he was one of 12 kids, Elijah’s parents recognized his promise and supported him in traveling to Scotland to study mechanical engineering at age 15.

After the Civil War, Elijah was determined to move to the United States with his family to pursue a career in mechanical engineering. To his dismay, all the available engineering jobs were reserved for white men despite being equally qualified.

Out of necessity, Elijah took a position as a fireman (one who adds coal to a train engine) and as an oiler (one who greased a train’s engine and gears) for Michigan Central Railroad. Although these were menial jobs relative to his qualifications, they would later become the inspiration for Elijah’s revolutionary inventions.

Dissatisfied with the fact that locomotives required frequent stops to oil its parts, Elijah drew on his engineering background to think through ways to improve this process. To address this issue, he invented and patented a lubricating cup that continuously distributed oil evenly over the engine’s moving parts.




His invention reinvented locomotive travel by allowing trains to run for long periods of time without needing to stop for maintenance. Elijah’s invention gave birth to the name “The Real McCoy” to distinguish from all the imitation lubricating cups that popped up following his success.

The moniker came to mean “the real deal” and denoted authenticity and originality to all those who were looking to purchase one of these products. While his invention continues to be used in trains to this day, it is his name that has become a cultural mainstay.

From childhood tinkering to 57 patents, Elijah McCoy became the most prolific Black inventor of his time even gaining the respect of notable public figures like Booker T. Washington for his remarkable output.

Elijah’s journey reveals the age-old adage that it’s not always about where you start, but where you end up that matters in life. Though he did not get the engineering job he initially wanted, he transformed the opportunities he was given into a career he never imagined possible.

Many people are in jobs that they do not want to be in and are not sure if they are truly walking in their purpose. Elijah McCoy is an example of how we can make the best of our situations by learning a business, finding a niche and way to improve it, and then creating a solution by starting our own enterprise.

Elijah never let his current situation dictate the ways in which he utilized his talents and brought value to an industry he was undoubtedly passionate about.



Why Did Black Voters Flee The Republican Party In The 1960s?

It is not uncommon to hear pundits talk about about Black voters’ unfaltering loyalty to the Democratic party, regarding the Black vote for Democrats as an inevitability. Indeed, for the past few presidential races, 90% of Black voters have chosen the Democratic candidate.

However, 100 years ago Black voters had this same loyalty for the the Republican Party. Even as recent as the 1960’s, only two-thirds of Black voters identified as Democrats. So why did this party shift occur?

According to some political scientists, Barry Goldwater happened. Goldwater, the Republican nominee in the 1964 presidential race, is considered the forefather of the Tea Party movement.

Goldwater opposed the passage of the Civil Rights Act, which appealed to Southern White segregationists, and ushered in a conservative movement that overtook the Republican party.
Black voters, in turn, realizing the Party of Lincoln had become hostile to them, did not take long to switch parties.

PushBlack fam, it is important that we keep this in mind in our fight to hold our politicians accountable and ensure that our votes are not taken for granted.

Via NPR.org

 

The Remarkable Legacies of the Stokes Brothers

The Stokes brothers are political legends in Cleveland, Ohio. Here’s why.

Though born as the great-grandsons of enslaved Africans, and raised in the impoverished Cleveland neighborhood of Central, Carl and Louis Stokes would grow up to become judges, political leaders, and history makers.

As a high-school dropout, Carl Stokes would later join the army, work in foundry, and then complete high school, college, and law school before becoming Cleveland’s first Black mayor in 1967. And, in doing so, he would become the first Black mayor of a major metropolitan city in the United States.

In the mayoral race, Carl defeated the grandson of President William Taft and overcame a city population that was ⅔ white in order to secure his victory. He would later serve in the Ohio legislature and preside as a municipal judge.

In 1962, Stokes became the first  Black anchorman of a television show in New York. Later, he’d return to Cleveland to work as general counsel for the United Auto Workers.

“The honorable Carl B. Stokes changed the course of the city’s history. His achievements not only set a standard for elections in major metropolitan communities but also established an agenda to meet the needs of Cleveland residents regardless of their racial and ethnic background….in his two terms in office from 1967-1971, he accomplished much that serves the city steadfastly today.”

  • The Stokes Project: Jack, Joseph and Morton Mandel Humanities Center




Some of Carl Stokes’ most notable political accomplishments include creating “Cleveland Now!” – a public/private partnership providing community resources, and advocacy for civic participation and against voter apath.

He opened City Hall jobs to Blacks and advocated for poor communities and racial unity.  In addition, he was a staunch advocate for community-oriented police divisions, a dream that may be realized through recent consent decrees promulgated by the U.S. Department of Justice.

“Mr. Stokes was credited with using humor and hard work to ease the misgivings of Cleveland’s white voters. ‘I went into every white home that would let me in there and every hall that would have me…I didn’t sit back. Carl Stokes doesn’t sit back.’”

His brother, Louis Stokes, was also a leader of “firsts.” In 1968, Louis was elected as Ohio’s first Black congressman and served 30 years in the U.S. House of Representatives.

As a crusading civil rights attorney, Louis argued against redistricting that would suppress the Black vote, as well as the iconic Terry v. Ohio “stop and frisk” case in 1968.

 The Supreme Court decision in Terry v. Ohio permitted police to stop and search individuals under “reasonable suspicion” that the person has committed, is committing, or is about to commit a crime and “may be armed and presently dangerous.”

In opposing this ruling, Louis grew attached to the case because he had been subjected to this unjust treatment that continues to exist today.

As a Congressman, Louis helped found the Congressional Black Caucus and chaired special investigations into the assassinations of both John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Jr.

Together, the Stokes brothers left an indelible impact on both Cleveland and the nation. Carl Stokes was mayor during the infamous Cuyahoga River fire in 1969, when an oil slick caught fire in the long-polluted Cuyahoga River – causing $100k in damage and fueling environmentalist and pollution activists to respond.




For this and other reasons, Cleveland “became a symbol of environmental degradation, of which both Carl and Louis Stokes responded. Their advocacy and urge for greater federal involvement in pollution control helped push forward the federal Clean Water Act of 1972.

Through August 2017, the city of Cleveland will celebrate the legacies and achievements of the Stokes brothers through programming, dedications, and special events.

In recognizing the 50th anniversary of Carl Stokes’ mayoral election, the Jack, Joseph, and Morton Mandel Humanities Center is leading community partners in celebrating their monumental legacy and impact on the city of Cleveland.

In the area and wanting to get involved? Check out the full year’s events here.

 

The Emergence of Jazz as the Ultimate Genre

The origin of jazz is a complex story about the relationship between music and race in America. It was born from Black artists who came from a tradition of making the most of their limited resources to create something out of nothing.

These individuals subverted the traditional use of European instruments and made something new. They drew on the Black experience in America to create a sound and culture that the world had never experienced before.

The African elements, particularly the drums, are responsible for jazz’s unique rhythm and feel while many of the harmonies can be traced back to Europe. This unlikely combination produced one of America’s most treasured and original genres of music.

Without a doubt, the Black experience in the U.S is responsible for the birth and evolution of jazz. The majority of the art form’s most important innovators were African-American, and some early jazz pieces can be linked to negro spirituals.

Blues, another Black form of musical expression, also played an integral role in the development of jazz and provided the foundation for its creation.




New Orleans is the birthplace of modern jazz music. As a port city with people arriving from all parts of the world, its position as a melting pot for cultural exchange truly helped jazz thrive and rise to popularity within the city.

Jazz reinvigorated New Orleans nightlife because it was more upbeat than traditional classical music and offered people an opportunity let loose and dance. It also became the preferred music for the city’s famed Storyville red light district and was played frequently in brothels.

Although the first jazz recording debuted in 1917, its presence had been felt way before that. As is the case with most art forms, there is no official date that marks the birth of jazz, and several competing stories exist about its origins.

Even the word “jazz” itself has its own history. Originally, it was spelled “j-a-s-s” and considered a dirty word because it referred to a woman’s backside.

Another early spelling was “j-a-s” which is thought to have two different interpretations. Dating back to 1860, there was an African-American slang term, “jasm”, which meant “energy” and could be linked to the name and style of music.

On the other hand, it could have referred to the “jasmine” perfume that New Orleans prostitutes wore to seduce their suitors. The term “jazz” did not exist until the music reached New York City and was spelled that way on Broadway.

An early jazz pioneer, Jelly Roll Morton, claimed to have invented jazz in 1902. However, a Black man named Charles “Buddy” Bolden formed a band in 1895 that is said to have been responsible for what eventually became known as jazz music.




The reality is that many of these New Orleans musicians were on the cutting edge of a musical genre that there simply was no language for at the time. Prior to jazz, most modern forms of music were played off of sheet music. Jazz musicians often had learned to play music by ear and had an ability to improvise on the spot, which was highly uncharacteristic and impressive.

For over one hundred years, the genre has been vibrant and its influence on contemporary Hip-Hop and R&B is undeniable. Notable musicians like Louis Armstrong, Nat King Cole, Mary Lou Williams, John Coltrane, and Miles Davis ring a bell in the homes of people from all different racial backgrounds.

Jazz is as American as sweet potato pie. Black people used musical ingredients that others disregarded to whip up something delicious. Many would even say it’s better than the original recipe.

Celebrating Juneteenth in the Realities of 2017

It’s been over 150 years since our ancestors were “freed” from slavery. Well, it’s been 150 years for some of them. On June 19th, we celebrated the 152nd anniversary of “Juneteenth,” or “freedom day.” It was on this day in 1865 that the last enslaved Africans were freed in Galveston, TX. Although President Lincoln enacted the Emancipation Proclamation two years prior, the onus was upon slave owners to both inform and free the enslaved. While accounts differ as to why there was a 2.5-year delay in Galveston, TX, this delay did conveniently fall after the harvest season.

But in the last 150-ish years, how far have we truly come? While our community has accomplished many feats, or “firsts”, as diverse as space travel to assuming the office of the President, there has been relatively little gained for the masses of Black people. This leaves our civil rights organizations and social justice advocates to beckon the same calls as previous generations. To illustrate, we’re taking you through some notable civic and social justice campaigns from the time of emancipation until now. With this knowledge, can we say that we are truly free?

Following the Civil War, African-Americans mobilized to fight against racial discrimination and improve their education, employment, and political opportunities. While Reconstruction policies under President Andrew Johnson “excluded Blacks from southern politics and allowed state legislatures to pass restrictive ‘black codes,’” political and grassroots mobilization by both Blacks and whites alike helped to fuel resistance to these discriminatory practices and mark a new trajectory beginning in 1866.




During the “Radical Reconstruction” period (1866-77), Congress granted African-American men full citizenship – including the right to vote. With the ratification of the 13th Amendment, enforcement of the Emancipation Proclamation (Juneteenth), and action from groups like the Union League, eventually over 250 African-American delegates would be elected – more than 100 of whom had been born into slavery. In all, during the Reconstruction period, 15 African Americans served in the U.S. Congress while well over 600 held state and local offices across the South. Hiram Revels (Mississippi) would become the first African-American elected to the U.S. Senate.

However, this progress didn’t stop (and actually fueled) racial discontent – especially amongst southern Whites. During the first two years of Reconstruction, Equal Rights Leagues were organized to protest discrimination, demand equality and ensure suffrage for all. As the oldest nationwide human rights organization, the National Equal Rights League (NERL) was founded in 1864 to liberate Black people in the United States.

With Frederick Douglass amongst its founding members, the NERL would associate itself with Republican politics (the political group that held ideals similar to today’s Democratic party) in order to actualize full civil rights for Blacks. Through protest, legal action, and advocacy, NERL’s most notable accomplishments include successful lawsuits to end streetcar segregation in 1866, as well as an unsuccessful attempt to integrate the school system in Pennsylvania.

Fast-forward to the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s. During this period, groups like the Southern Christian Leadership Council (SCLC), the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) continued advocating for full realization of rights owed to Blacks under the Constitution of the United States.

With a goal of ultimate equality, these groups mobilized voter registration drives and taught individuals how to overcome poll taxes and tests geared to disenfranchise Black voters. Additionally, they tirelessly organized on-the-ground, nonviolent protests coupled with civil disobedience.

These groups’ dedication to achieving political, social, educational, and economic equality for all undoubtedly changed the course of American history and opened up numerous doors for our continued political advancement. With such capstones as the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the desegregation of public universities and the desegregation of public accommodations, the work of these groups has not been in vain – yet echoes of their sentiments continue to stir in present-day.

In present times, we have yet to elect a Black woman to the position of governor of any state. And, while integration has improved the educational prospects of some of our youth – it has not come without a cost: a void of Afrocentric pedagogy, depreciating property values in Black neighborhoods and the gentrification of our communities.

Additionally, Blacks continually fall short of full-employment while voter ID laws depreciate the Black vote and hate crimes demonstrate that racial tension continues to surmount. Meanwhile, Democratic leaders justify using shackled Black bodies to maintain state-owned establishments. While groups like Black Lives Matter have mobilized in response to ongoing police brutality, older civil rights organizations such as the NAACP have not yet decreased their dockets.

Today, 150-ish years later, are we that far removed from the very first Juneteenth? Or, has slavery assumed but another name? If our advocacy organizations are continually making the same call, perhaps it’s time for us to assume a new strategy. Perhaps it’s time for a revolutionary one.

3.7

Why is the FBI so threatened by Assata Shakur?

Black liberation activist Assata Shakur was placed on the FBI’s most wanted terrorist list. As the only woman and only black person on the list, what makes Shakur such a threat? Colorlines outlines the history of this list and Assata Shakur’s background in this article.

“Assata Shakur has been given many names over the past four decades. Her political allies in the 1970s struggle for black liberation knew her as a comrade and freedom fighter. Ever since her escape from a New Jersey prison and exile in Cuba, she’s become an icon to many on the radical left. Some, mostly critics, still call her by her birth name, Joanne Chesimard. Now the Federal Bureau of Investigation has a new name for her: terrorist.”




Assata Shakur, originally from Queens, NY, was an activist, Black nationalist, and uncompromising orator and community mobilizer. Though born as “Joanne Deborah Bryon,” Shakur later changed her name to “Assata” (“she who struggles”) and “Shakur” (“the thankful”). Though remembered as a radical, her philosophical views were not necessarily always in alignment with this typecast. Instead, it wasn’t until the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.  in 1968 that “precipitated Assata Shakur’s embrace of the militant Black Power movement and her rejection of nonviolence.

Her political involvement traversed the Black Panther Party and the Black Liberation Army, ultimately leading to her surveillance through the FBI’s COINTELPRO program. As a result, she fled and went into hiding – and is likely still alive today. Her 1987 autobiography provides some insight into her political affiliations and movement, but still much is left unsaid. Learn more about her heroic actions, uncompromising political attitude, and unwavering love for Blackness in the article below.




Why is the FBI so threatened by Assata Shakur?
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Kaepernick Ain’t The Only One

In recent months, Colin Kaepernick transitioned from headlines that praised  his protest of the national anthem, to headlines that praised his charitable contributions. In addition to fighting famine in Somaliahe supported Meals on Wheels with $50,000 to assist the elderly in the U.S.

But Kaepernick isn’t the first athlete to use his [or her] power of celebrity to make a political stance or impact social good.

Mahmoud Abdul-Rauf, an NBA player for the Denver Nuggets refused to honor the national anthem during the 1995-1996 NBA season.

It all started on March 10, 1966, when Abdul-Rauf sat down in the middle of the anthem, stating that the American flag was “a symbol of oppression, of tyranny.”

Abdul-Rauf, a Muslim, also cited religious reasons for his rejection of the national anthem: “I’m a Muslim first and a Muslim last. My duty is to my creator, not to a nationalistic ideology.”




The NBA suspended him without pay – using a rule that requires players to “stand and line up in a dignified posture”during both the U.S. and Canadian anthem. In response, Abdul-Rauf decided to stand during the national anthem. But rather than place his hand on his chest, he held them up in prayer.

For the rest of his career, Abdul-Rauf endured great scrutiny and criticism for his activism. He ultimately left the NBA and closed his career by playing for a variety of international clubs.

But there are still current NBA players protesting – to this day.

David West, NBA veteran and current forward for the Golden State Warriors, has subtly protested the U.S. national anthem for years  Long before Kaepernick took a knee, West stood (and continues to stand) last in line and two feet behind his teammates during the “Star Spangled Banner.” While Kaepernick’s protest sought to raise awareness on racial injustice in America, West explains that his reasons are much deeper:

“I can’t start talking about civic issues. I can’t start talking about civility and being a citizen if motherf——don’t even think I’m a human being. How can you talk about progress and how humans interrelate with one another when you don’t recognize our humanity? We got to somehow get that straight first so we’re on the same playing field. And that’s how I feel.”

But even David took a note from his athletic, activist-minded predecessors who used their position and influence to impact a variety of social issues during their lifetimes.

Paul Robeson, a former NFL player that retired to devote his career to the arts, also used his influence to impact social justice efforts. As a frequent speaker, marcher and avid activist in the 1940s, the State Department ultimately revoked his passport in response to his activism. In Robeson’s own words, “as an artist I [came] to sing, but as a citizen, I will always speak for peace, and no one can silence me in this.”

And, it wasn’t just the men who used the court, gym or camera to impart political knowledge on the masses — the women did so as well.




Althea Gibson, the first Black woman to compete on the world tennis tour and to win a Grand Slam in 1956, eventually became the New Jersey State Commissioner of Athletics. She set her sights high, later challenging Democrat Frank J. Dodd for the New Jersey Senate in 1977.

And there’s even more: Hank Aaron, Jackie Robinson, Wilma Rudolph – the list continues. Perhaps Kaepernick, Abdul-Rauf or West have a political career in their future? But even if not, we certainly appreciate their activism, support, and  public protests today. #Salute.

Via Sports Illustrated and Fusion.